Do you eat mango?
How often do you eat mango?
Are you aware of the health benefits obtainable from mango consumption?
Did you know that the mango fruit, as well as other parts of the plant, are medicinally beneficial to your health?
If you have answered "yes" to the above questions, then KUDOS! If otherwise, then it is high time you started tapping into the numerous benefits of this plant. It might interest you to read through this article to understand how you can benefit from this nature's gift. You will also learn how the various parts of the mango plant can be used for tackling various health challenges.
Presently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of plants and bioactive phyto-compounds. Plants are the main source of fruits and vegetables that provide us with the essential nutrients needed for the healthy functioning of our bodies. This is as a result of their high constituent of phytochemicals, such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds that are integral for good health. Epidemiologic studies have invariably emphasized that the intake of fruits and vegetables minimizes the onset of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Fruits from both the tropical and the subtropical parts of the world are treasured for their high nutritional and medicinal benefits, as well as for their constituents of health-promoting compounds. Interestingly, mango is one of such fruits that has evidence of global attention due to its ability to counteract the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production or the pro-inflammatory molecules linked to human pathologies, such as ageing, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Mango is an excellent source of polyphenols and it might interest you to note that the importance of diets rich in polyphenols has gained global recognition due to their radical scavenging properties and anti-carcinogenetic effects.
Mango, which is also recognised as the king of fruits is an evergreen plant with a large canopy and a distinctive circular projection. Mango belongs to the genus Mangifera and of the family Anacardiaceae, with many tropical fruiting trees planted. According to Ravindra and Goswami (2013), the mango fruit originated from Asia before it was distributed to other parts of the world. Various parts of the world have varying names for mango, for example, it is referred to as Mampalam in Tamil, Mannko in Greek, Mango in Dutch, Mángguǒin in Chinese, Amba in Sinhala, Manja in Arabic, Mango in Finnish, Ambi or Am in Hindi, Mangue in German and Mangue in French. The growth rate of a mango tree is highly reduced in the subtropical regions while the tree can grow up to 30–40 m in height in the tropical regions of the world. The shiny pointed and deep green leaves are perennial in nature while the inflorescence exists in panicles of approximately 3000 yellowish–green or whitish-red flowers. The edible juicy mango fruit has hundreds of varieties with each of them having its own unique shape, size and taste. The exocarp (outer peel) of mango is smooth in appearance. The outer peel of unripe mango is green in colour while the ripe mango is yellowish, crimson red, orange-red or golden yellow in colour depending on the cultivar. The endocarp (inner part) is an ovoid-oblong core with a single seed. The mesocarp (pulp), which is orange-yellow in appearance and fortified with several tender fibrils is flavourful, rich and sweet. The fruit is sweet, although the texture and taste depend on the cultivars with some being softer, firmer, pulpy, fibrous or overripe in appearance.

Meanwhile, Watch this Short Video on the Benefits of Mango !!!

Mango fruit is rich in nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, Vitamin A, C, E, K, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, folate, choline, calcium, iron, magnesium. The outer peel and flesh of the mango fruit are an excellent source of vitamin A and C, dietary fibre, essential amino acids and polyphenols. Numerous chemical compounds have been reported in mango among which polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonoids and xanthones) are the most abundant ones. The mango seed is a rich source of polyphenols. The polyphenolic compounds present in mango mesocarp include β-glucogallin, mangiferin, kaempferol, catechins, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized form of ascorbic acid), quercetin, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, rhamnetin, isoquercetin, propyl and methyl gallate, anthocyanins and gallotannins.
Various parts of mango such as the fruit, root, bark, extracts of fruit kernel, flowers and leaves are used in traditional and untraditional medicine for tackling diverse ailments and diseases. For example, a decocted mango kernel can be used for treating bleeding haemorrhoids, haemorrhages and diarrhoea due to its astringent and vermifuge properties. Unripe mango fruit, leaves and bark extracts are beneficial due to their antibiotic activity while the aqueous stem bark extract can be used as a remedy for tackling ulcers, gastritis, fever and diarrhoea. Interestingly, researchers have proven that these mango parts exhibit antifungal, antioxidizing, antidiabetic, anticancer, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial, hepatoprotective, anti-hyperlipemic, antibacterial, gastroprotective and immunomodulatory effects.
Ethnomedicinal Uses of Mango Parts
- Roots and stem bark of mango possess anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation), anti-emetic (prevents vomiting), anti-syphilitic (acts against syphilis), astringent (contracts skin cells and other body tissues), styptic (stops bleeding), refrigerant (cooling effect) and vulnerary (wound healing) properties. As a result, they can be used for tackling ulcers, metrorrhagia, wounds, vomiting, constipation, syphilis, uteritis, calonorrhagia and pneumorrhagia. The fresh bark juice can be used for tackling menorrhoea, diarrhoea, leucorrhea and bleeding piles.
- The flowers exhibit haematinic (increases the haemoglobin content of the blood), refrigerant, astringent, vulnerary and styptic properties. As a result, the dried flowers can be used for treating anaemia, anorexia, haemorrhages, haemoptysis, diarrhoea, catarrh of the bladder (cystitis), wounds, ulcers, chronic dysentery, uroedema gleet and dyspepsia.
- Mango leaves possess vulnerary, astringent, styptic and refrigerant properties. They can be used for treating hiccup, wounds, hemorrhages, diarrhoea, haemoptysis, cough, ulcers, hyperdipsia, dysentery, stomachopathy, burning sensation, pharyngopathy, scorpion sting and haemorrhoids. The ash of burnt mango leaves can be used for treating scalds and burns. The smoke from burning mango leaves can be inhaled for the relief of throat diseases.
- Mango fruits are medicinal thus useful for tackling several ailments. The acrid unripe mango fruits exhibit digestive, carminative (relieves flatulence), antiscorbutic (prevents or cures scurvy) and refrigerant properties. Thus, they can be used for tackling dysentery, eruptions and urethrorrhoea. The sweet ripe mango fruits exhibit tonic, refrigerant, aphrodisiac (stimulates sexual desire), cardiotonic (strengthens the heart), laxative, haemostatic (stops bleeding) and emollient (softens or soothes the skin) effects. They can also be used in tackling haemorrhages, anorexia, cardiopathy, haemoptysis, emaciation (thin or weak), anaemia and dyspepsia (indigestion),
- Mango seed kernel or stone is an excellent source of gallic acid and protein (8.5%). It exhibits haemostatic, astringent, anthelmintic, refrigerant, vulnerary and constipating properties. It can be used for tackling chronic diarrhoea, cough, haemorrhages, haemoptysis, helminthiasis, vomiting, diabetes, heat-burn, dysentery, leucorrhoea, haemorrhoids, menorrhagia, ulcers and bruises.
Benefits of Mango
Edible Purposes
Most countries use mangoes in cuisine such as athanu, curries, chutneys, pickles, or it can be eaten fresh as a fruit. Jelly produced from mango pulp can be served with cooked rice. Kumar et al., (2013) agreed that mango is used commercially in manufacturing sweet chilli sauce, ice cream, raspados, mango smoothies, juices, fruit bars, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce. In Central America, mango is usually eaten green or ripe mixed with black pepper, salt and hot sauce. Mashed mango can be used as ice cream topping or blended with ice and milk as milkshakes. Sliced mango can be served as salsa, dessert or used in mango salad with sauce or condensed milk.
Antifungal Effects
Studies reveal that the ethanol extract of mango leaves exhibit antifungal effects against Pythium aphanidermatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ustus. An aqueous extract of mango leaves variety found in Mexico have been shown to exhibit a moderate inhibition of fungal strain Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. A recent study showed that the seed extracts of four mango varieties in Spain (Sensation, Keitt, Gomera-3, and peel) inhibited the growth of the eighteen fungal species examined. Lodderomyces elongisporus, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis showed the highest level of sensitivity towards the tested extracts. Mango bark and kernel also exhibit antifungal effects. Furthermore, studies reveal that the methanolic kernel extracts of four mango varieties cultivated in Kenya exhibited inhibitory effects against C. albicans.
Anti-Inflammatory Properties
The phytochemicals found in mango exhibit anti-inflammatory effects thus the fruit is useful for tackling various chronic pathological disorders linked to inflammatory responses. For example, inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and IBS are intestinal disorders that are characterised by chronic inflammation and mucosal damage. These intestinal problems are linked with an increased risk of onset of rectal and colon cancers. Studies reveal that an aqueous stem bark extract of mango contains a mixture of flavonoids and polyphenols thus useful for reducing the symptoms of colitis such as diarrhoea, colon shortening and body weight loss.
Anticancer Effects
Studies reveal that the bioactive components found in various parts of mango exhibit anticancer effects in tumour cell lines. A methanol bark extract of mango has cytotoxic effects in pancreatic cancer cells and this is attributed to its constituent of isomangiferin gallate, mangiferin, mangiferin gallate, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-arabinopyranoside. Also, the aqueous extract of mango mesocarp exhibits antitumor activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.
Treatment of Diabetes
Researchers have proven that mango leaves are effective for controlling diabetes. Mango leaves powder is capable of reducing the blood sugar level, however, this has to be followed by a strict diet and medication. Diabetic patients can consume mango-leaf solution (1 to 2 teaspoon in 150ml of water) twice daily on an empty stomach to lower their blood sugar level.
Anthelmintic Effects
Studies reveal that the ethanolic, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of mango roots showed dose-dependent anthelmintic effects against earthworm Pheretima posthuma, adult nematodes from the gastrointestinal tract of goats. Mango fruit inhibits the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis while the aqueous extract of the mango bark inhibits Trichinella spiralis.
Antihyperlipemic Effects
Studies reveal that the consumption of an aqueous extract of mango bark significantly lowers the serum total cholesterol level.
Antiplasmodial Effects
It has been established that the methanol extract of mango bark exhibits antiplasmodial effects against malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. There is also a mild inhibitory effect of an ethanolic extract of mango bark on P. falciparum.
Ulcer Treatment
Mango exhibits gastro-protective effects thus the leaves can be decocted and used for tackling gastric damage.
This post is for enlightenment purposes only and should not be used as a replacement for professional diagnostic and treatments. Remember to always consult your healthcare provider before making any health-related decisions or for counselling, guidance and treatment about a specific medical condition.
- Awe et al., (1998), Antiplasmodial and antipyretic screening of Mangifera indica extract, Phytotherapy Research, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 437-438.
- Bbosa G.S., Kyegombe D.B., Ogwal-Okeng J., Bukenya-Ziraba R., Odyek O., Waako P. (2007), Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica (L.) African Journal of Ecol., 45:13–16.
- Dhananjaya B. L., Shivalingaiah S. (2016), The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 88:197–209. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201620140574
- Dineshkumar et al., (2010), Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of few common plants extract in type 2 diabetic patients at Bengal, International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 59–65.
- Dorta et al., (2016), Antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts, Natural Product Research (Formerly Natural Product Letters), vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 2598–2604.
- Ediriweera et al., (2017), A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6949835
- El-Sherbini, G. T. and Osman, S. M. (2013), Anthelmintic activity of unripe Mangifera indica L. (Mango) against Strongyloides stercoralis,” International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 401–409.
- Farina V., Corona O., Mineo V., D’Asaro A., Barone F. (2013), Qualitative characteristics of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.), which have undergone preservation (Italian) Acta Italus Hortus;12:70–73.
- Godfrey et al., (2007) The activity of Mangifera indica leaf extracts against the tetanus causing bacterium, Clostridium tetani, African Journal of Ecology; 45:54-58.
- Impellizzeri et al., (2015), Protective effect of polyphenols in an inflammatory process associated with experimental pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Br. Journal of Nutr., 114:853–865. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002597.
- Kim H., Banerjee N., Ivanov I., Pfent C. M., Prudhomme K. R., Bisson W. H., Dashwood R. H., Talcott S. T., Mertens-Talcott S. U. (2016), Comparison of anti-inflammatory mechanisms of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) in a preclinical model of colitis. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 60:1912–1923. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201501008
- Kim H., Kim H., Mosaddik A., Gyawali R., Ahn K.S., Cho S.K. (2012), Induction of apoptosis by ethanolic extract of mango peel and comparative analysis of the chemical constitutes of mango peel and flesh. Food Chem., 133:416–422. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.053.
- Kumar, R., Bawa, A.S., Kathiravan, T. and Nadanasabapathi, S. (2013) Thermal processing of mango nectar (Mangifera indica) and its effect on chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics, International Journal of Advanced Research (2013), Volume 1, Issue 8 pp. 261-262.
- Latha et al., (2012), Comparative studies on anthelmintic activity of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam root crude extracts,” International Journal of Phytopharmacy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21–24.
- Lauricella et al., (2017), Multifaceted Health Benefits of Mangifera indica L. (Mango): The Inestimable Value of Orchards Recently Planted in Sicilian Rural Areas, Nutrients, 9(5): 525.
- Márquez L., Pérez-Nievas B. G., Gárate I., García-Bueno B., Madrigal J.L., Menchén L., Garrido G., Leza J. C. (2010) Anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract in a model of colitis. World J. Gastroenterol., 16:4922–4931. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i39.4922
- Muazu et al., (2017), Effects of some plant extracts on some selected fungal species, Journal of Zoological And Bioscience Research, vol. 3, no. 1.
- Nathan et al., (2005), Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study Research Group, Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, The New England Journal of Medicine 353 (25): 2643–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa052187. PMC 2637991. PMID 16371630.
- Ojewole J. A. (2005), Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract. Clinical Pharmacology; 27:547-554.
- Parvez (2016), Pharmacological Activities of Mango (Mangifera Indica): A Review, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 5(3): 01-07.
- Patnaik, R. (2014), Mango Leaves in Treating Diabetes: A Strategic Study, International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development, Vol 3 Issue 12, pp.432-435.
- Pixaby (2018), Images via https://pixabay.com/
- Ravindra, M., R. & Goswami, T., K. (2013) Mango Fruit Pre-cooling Techniques, International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences,Vol. 1, Issue 2 P.31.
- Rocha-Ribeiro et al., (2007), Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp. Plant Foods and Human Nutrition, 62(1):13-17.
- Sairam K., Hemalatha S., Kumar A., Srinivasan T., Ganesh J., Sarkar M., Venkataraman S. (2003), Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of Mangifera indica. Journal of Ethnopharmacol., 84:11–15. doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00250-7.
- Thambi et al., (2016), Antimicrobial efficacy of mango peel powder and formulation of recipes using mango peel powder (Mangifera indica L.), International Journal of Home Science, 2(2): 155-161.
- Zirihi et al., (2005), In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of 33 West African plants used for treatment of malaria, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 281–285.

Subscribe to Global Food Book's email list and get a FREE eBook.

Privacy Policy: We dislike SPAM E-Mail. We pledge to keep your email safe.